During the Song Dynasty (960 – 1269), as China experienced a revival in both culture and the arts, the production of Chinese ceramics flourished. Kilns emerged in various regions across the country, each producing their own specialised wares. As Chinese tea-masters were regarded as arbiters of taste and morality, the tea bowls that they used were often aptly glazed in humble and subdued colours. Jian wares, with their iron-rich dark body and black glaze were considered especially appropriate tea-drinking vessels. The Jian kilns produced rustic bowls with characteristic russet brown streaks or splashes, as seen on this tea bowl, created by iron oxides. Such tea bowls were the norm for a fashionable tea party in the Song Dynasty and earned the admiration of Emperor Huizong (8th Emperor of the Song Dynasty, r.1101- 1125) who described their value in his treatise on tea, Dà guān chá lùn. He lauded the dark purplish glaze, which offered a contrast to the pale coloured tea froth. This tea bowl dates from the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), indicating the continuing popularity of jian wares.